Brief overview of tunnel engineering
Tunnels are developed under the ground and they are utilized for transportations. Given below, the detail information about tunnels.
The tunnel engineering becomes very much popular now-a-days. The work is complicated and challenging all through its course.
The tunnels are described as the subway passages which are mainly utilized for the transportation purposes. They allow the conveyance of passengers and freights. It is also used for the conveyance of utilities like water, sewage or gas etc.
The operations and the erections are done underground devoid of affecting the ground surface. This operation is known as the tunneling.
Choosing Tunneling Route: The two major factors that facilitate creating well-organized route of the tunnel are the alignment restraints and the environmental considerations. The nature of underground is multifarious. Prior to set up the route, correct examination of the nature of soil, rock, the water table level as well as all the alignment restraints should be required.
Choose the site for tunneling in a perfect manner so that any trouble and difficulty may not arise to the environment in that area along with living.
There are various factors like the conditions of the ground, the water table level, the tunnel drive length and the diameter, the tunnel depth, final utility requirements, the shape of the tunnel and the risk of construction which influence the selection of proper tunneling method.
Benefits of Tunneling - Given below some specific advantages of tunneling method with regard to other methods:
• The tunneling method is more cost-effective in nature, relating to open cut trench method when the depth is apart from a limit.
• The surface life or ground activities like transportation are not affected while tunneling work is going on.
• The method guarantee fast-paced construction with little power consumption.
• Lowers Noise Pollution.
• These methods are not affected with snow and iceberg hazards, in areas of high altitudes.
• Surface and air interference is limited for tunnels.
• Provision of tunnels with smooth gradients, facilitates in minimizing the cost of hauling.
• For the conveyance of public utilities, tunneling method provides huge advantages with regard to the bridge.
• The hazardous open cut to a adjoining structure, when it is required, is resolved by the tunneling method.
• The tunneling allows better protection in aerial warfare and bombing conditions.